The filibuster exists because the Senate failed to include a motion on the previous question in its rules when those rules were codified for the first time in 1806. As far as we can tell, this was more of an accident than anything else. "Theories of the Senate," including Johnn C. Calhoun's concurrent majorities, arose over the course of the 19th century about why the Senate lacked a limit on debate, but all of this was a rationalization for a thoughtless act in 1806. With that move, the Senate did not have a rule to limit debate and waited until 1917 to get the cloture rule—Rule 22—in place. A majority of senators appear to have favored simple-majority cloture in 1917 and at other times, but obstructionists prevented a rule providing for a lower threshold from coming to a vote...In other words, there's no principled reason the filibuster exists, and a majority of Senators back in 1917 (and a good number before then) wanted to get rid of it but they couldn't. It's there by an accident of history and an oversight by the Framers. Meanwhile, those Senators today who still want to keep it around are just "self-serving" slaves to "brass-knuckle politics." Sure, maybe, but what was so great about those Senators who wanted to ditch the filibuster way back in 1917 or 1806 or whatever? Were they somehow less self-interested than today's bunch? Probably not.
Reading high constitutional principle into the filibuster and Rule 22 is unwise. To be sure, principle is articulated by senators in its defense; a few senators actually believe it. But brass-knuckle politics, not Senate representation or separation of powers, explain it. And self-serving senatorial interests, not constitutional principle, will save it, if it is saved.